Correcting the permissions on the folder with VHDS files & checkpoints for host level Hyper-V guest cluster backups

Introduction

It’s not a secret that while guest clustering with VHDSets works very well. We’ve had some struggles in regards to host level backups however. Right now I leverage Veeam Agent for Windows (VAW) to do in guest backups. The most recent versions of VAW support Windows Failover Clustering. I’d love to leverage host level backups but I was struggling to make this reliable for quite a while. As it turned out recently there are some virtual machine permission issues involved we need to fix. Both Microsoft and Veeam have published guidance on this in a KB article. We automated correcting the permissions on the folder with VHDS files & checkpoints for host level Hyper-V guest cluster backup

The KB articles

Early August Microsoft published KB article with all the tips when thins fail Errors when backing up VMs that belong to a guest cluster in Windows. Veeam also recapitulated on the needed conditions and setting to leverage guest clustering and performing host level backups. The Veeam article is Backing up Hyper-V guest cluster based on VHD set. Read these articles carefully and make sure all you need to do has been done.

For some reason another prerequisite is not mentioned in these articles. It is however discussed in ConfigStoreRootPath cluster parameter is not defined and here https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/hyper-v/set-vmhostcluster?view=win10-ps You will need to set this to make proper Hyper-V collections needed for recovery checkpoints on VHD Sets. It is a very unknown setting with very little documentation.

But the big news here is fixing a permissions related issue!

The latest addition in the list of attention points is a permission issue. These permissions are not correct by default for the guest cluster VMs shared files. This leads to the hard to pin point error.

Error Event 19100 Hyper-V-VMMS 19100 ‘BackupVM’ background disk merge failed to complete: General access denied error (0x80070005). To fix this issue, the folder that holds the VHDS files and their snapshot files must be modified to give the VMMS process additional permissions. To do this, follow these steps for correcting the permissions on the folder with VHDS files & checkpoints for host level Hyper-V guest cluster backup.

Determine the GUIDS of all VMs that use the folder. To do this, start PowerShell as administrator, and then run the following command:

get-vm | fl name, id
Output example:
Name : BackupVM
Id : d3599536-222a-4d6e-bb10-a6019c3f2b9b

Name : BackupVM2
Id : a0af7903-94b4-4a2c-b3b3-16050d5f80f

For each VM GUID, assign the VMMS process full control by running the following command:
icacls <Folder with VHDS> /grant “NT VIRTUAL MACHINE\<VM GUID>”:(OI)F

Example:
icacls “c:\ClusterStorage\Volume1\SharedClusterDisk” /grant “NT VIRTUAL MACHINE\a0af7903-94b4-4a2c-b3b3-16050d5f80f2”:(OI)F
icacls “c:\ClusterStorage\Volume1\SharedClusterDisk” /grant “NT VIRTUAL MACHINE\d3599536-222a-4d6e-bb10-a6019c3f2b9b”:(OI)F

My little PowerShell script

As the above is tedious manual labor with a lot of copy pasting. This is time consuming and tedious at best. With larger guest clusters the probability of mistakes increases. To fix this we write a PowerShell script to handle this for us.

Below is an example of the output of this script. It provides some feedback on what is happening.

Correcting the permissions on the folder with VHDS files & checkpoints for host level Hyper-V guest cluster backup

Correcting the permissions on the folder with VHDS files & checkpoints for host level Hyper-V guest cluster backup

PowerShell for the win. This saves you some searching and typing and potentially making some mistakes along the way. Have fun. More testing is underway to make sure things are now predictable and stable. We’ll share our findings with you.

Monitor the UNMAP/TRIM effect on a thin provisioned SAN

Introduction

During demo’s I give on the effectiveness of storage efficiencies (UNMAP, ODX) in Hyper-V I use some PowerShell code to help show his. Trim in the virtual machine and on the Hyper-V host pass along information about deleted blocks to a thin provisioned storage array. That means that every layer can be as efficient as possible. Here’s a picture of me doing a demo to monitor the UNMAP/TRIM effect on a thin provisioned SAN.

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The script shows how a thin provisioned LUN on a SAN (DELL SC Series) grows in actual used spaced when data is being created or copied inside VMs. When data is hard deleted TRIM/UNMAP prevents dynamically expanding VHDX files form growing more than they need to. When a VM is shut down it even shrinks. The same info is passed on to the storage array. So, when data is deleted we can see the actual space used in a thin provisioned LUN on the SAN go down. That makes for a nice demo. I have some more info on the benefits and the potential issues of UNMAP if used carelessly here.

Scripting options for the DELL SC Series (Compellent)

Your storage array needs to support thin provisioning and TRIM/UNMAP with Windows Server Hyper-V. If so all you need is PowerShell library your storage vendor must provide. For the DELL Compellent series that use to be the PowerShell Command Set (2008) which made them an early adopter of PowerShell automation in the industry. That evolved with the array capabilities and still works to day with the older SC series models. In 2015, Dell Storage introduced the Enterprise Manager API (EM-API) and also the Dell Storage PowerShell SDK, which uses the EM-API. This works over a EM Data Collector server and no longer directly to the management IP of the controllers. This is the only way to work for the newer SC series models.

It’s a powerful tool to have and allows for automation and orchestration of your storage environment when you have wrapped your head around the PowerShell commands.

That does mean that I needed to replace my original PowerShell Command Set scripts. Depending on what those scripts do this can be done easily and fast or it might require some more effort.

Monitoring UNMAP/TRIM effect on a thin provisioned SAN with PowerShell

As a short demo let me show case the Command Set and the DELL Storage PowerShell SDK version of a script monitor the UNMAP/TRIM effect on a thin provisioned SAN with PowerShell.

Command Set version

Bar the way you connect to the array the difference is in the commandlets. In Command Set retrieving the storage info is done as follows:

In the DELL Storage PowerShell SDK version it is not harder, just different than it used to be.

Which gives …

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I hope this gave you some inspiration to get started automating your storage provisioning and governance. On premises or cloud, a GUI and a click have there place, but automation is the way to go. As a bonus, the complete script is below.

 

Collect cluster nodes with HBA WWN info

Introduction

Below is a script that I use to collect cluster nodes with HBA WWN info. It grabs the cluster nodes and their HBA (virtual ports) WWN information form an existing cluster. In this example the nodes have Fibre Channel (FC) HBAs. It works equally well for iSCSI HBA or other cards. You can use the collected info in real time. As an example I also demonstrate writing and reading the info to and from a CSV.

This script comes in handy when you are replacing the storage arrays. You’ll need that info to do the FC zoning for example.  And to create the cluster en server object with the correct HBA on the new storage arrays if it allows for automation. As a Hyper-V cluster admin you can grab all that info from your cluster nodes without the need to have access to the SAN or FC fabrics. You can use it yourself and hand it over to those handling them, who can use if to cross check the info they see on the switch or the old storage arrays.

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Script to collect cluster nodes with HBA WWN info

The script demos a single cluster but you could use it for many. It collects the cluster name, the cluster nodes and their Emulex HBAs. It writes that information to a CSV files you can read easily in an editor or Excel.

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The scripts demonstrates reading that CSV file and parsing the info. That info can be used in PowerShell to script the creation of the cluster and server objects on your SAN and add the HBAs to the server objects. I recently used it to move a bunch of Hyper-V and File clusters to a new DELLEMC SC Series storage arrays. That has the DELL Storage PowerShell SDK. You might find it useful as an example and to to adapt for your own needs (iSCSI, brand, model of HBA etc.).

Add HBAs to SC Series Servers with Add-DellScPhysicalServerHba

Introduction

Before I dump the script to add HBAs to SC Series Servers with Add-DellScPhysicalServerHba on you, first some context. I have been quite busy with multiple SAN migrations. A bunch of older DELLEMC SC Series (Compellent) to newer All Flash Arrays (see My first Dell SC7020(F) Array Solution)  When I find the time I’ll share some more PowerShell snippets I use to make such efforts a bit easier. It’s quite addictive and it allows you migrate effectively and efficiently.

In the SC Series we create cluster objects in which we place server objects. That make life easier on the SAN end.image

Those server objects are connected to the SAN via FC or iSCSI. For this we need to add the HBAs to the servers after we have set up the zoning correctly. That’s a whole different subject.

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This is tedious work in the user interface, especially when there are many WWN entries visible that need to be assigned. Mistakes can happen. This is where automation comes in handy and a real time saver when you have many clusters/nodes and multiple SANs. So well show you how to grab the WWN info your need from the cluster nodes to add HBAs to SC Series Servers with Add-DellScPhysicalServerHba.

Below you see a script that loops through all the nodes of a cluster and gets the HBA WWNs we need. I than adds those WWNs to the SC Series server object. In another blog post I’ll share so snippets to gather the cluster info needed to create the cluster objects and server objects on the Compellent SC Series SAN. In this blog post we’ll assume the server have objects has been created.

We leverage the Dell Storage Manager – 2016 R3.20 Release (Public PowerShell SDK for Dell Storage API). I hope it helps.

Add HBAs to SC Series Servers with Add-DellScPhysicalServerHba