Tips on using Convert-VMGeneration.ps1 with Windows Server 2016

Introduction

Recently I was involved in getting a bunch of “holy cow” virtual machines updated/migrated to be future ready (shielded VMs, see Guarded fabric and shielded VMs overview).

That means they have to be on Windows 2012 R2 as the guest OS minimally .For us anyway, we’re not falling behind the curve OS wise. That’s the current legacy OS in the environment. Preferably they need to be at Windows Server 2016. This is has been taken care of and 40% of the virtual machines is already running Windows Server 2016 for the Guest OS, the remainder is at Windows Server 2012 R2 and those are moving to Windows Server 2016, where useful and possible, at a steady pace.,

When deploying new virtual machines the default is to use generation 2 virtual machines. Any remaining virtual machines that cannot be replaced need to be converted to generation 2. For that we routinely use the great script provided by Microsoft’s John Howard (see Hyper-V generation 2 virtual machines – part 10)  We’ll share some tips on using Convert-VMGeneration.ps1 with Windows Server 2016, which is an OS / Hyper-V version later than what the script was written for and tested against.

Tips on using Convert-VMGeneration.ps1 with Windows Server 2016

During the use of this script we came across a couple of new situations for us. One of those were Window Server 2016 virtual machines that are still generation 1 and reside on either a Windows Server 2012 (R2) or Windows Server 2016 host. Another were virtual machines with Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016 as a guest OS that already live on Windows Server 2016 and are still generation 1 and have either already been converted to or installed on a virtual machine version 8 or not (still at 5). All these can be death with successfully.

Situation 1

Running the script on a Windows Server 2016 Host. This throws an error reporting that the was only tested with PS version 4.

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This is easily dealt with by using the -noPSVersionCheck switch, it even tells you to do so in the error message. I have found no issues in doing so.

.\Convert-VMGeneration.ps1 -VMName “MyVM” -path “C:\ClusterStorage\Volume1\ConvertedMyVM” -NoPSVersionCheck

Situation 2

Running the script against a generation 1 virtual machine with a Windows Server 2016 guest OS required a little adaptation of the script as it has an issue with detecting the guest OS version as supported. This is due to the fact that in the script the check is done against string values and they generate a logical “bug” when the doing.

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Checking if a string of value 7 -lt 6 will evaluate correctly but doing the same with 10 doesn’t, that’s false. An error message is show that the “Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later”. Well is most certainly is, but the 10 in 10.0.14393.206 is not seen as greater or equal to six.

We fixed by converting the 1st and 2nd part (for good measure) of the OS version string to an integer before the check happens. That fixes it for us.

We’ll demonstrate this in a code snippet to run on a Windows Server 2016 host.

$SourceNTDLL = "C:\windows\system32\ntdll.dll"

$script:ProgressPoint = 651

$SourceOSVersion = ([System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo]::GetVersionInfo($SourceNTDLL).FileVersion)

$script:ProgressPoint = 652

$SourceProductName = ([System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo]::GetVersionInfo($SourceNTDLL).ProductName)

$SourceOSVersionParts = $SourceOSVersion.split(".")

if ($SourceOSVersionParts[0]-lt 6) { Write-Host "Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later." }

if (($SourceOSVersionParts[0] -eq 6) -and ($SourceOSVersionParts[1] -lt 2)) {Write-Host "Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later." }

This will give you the massage that the “Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later”. So, we cast the $SourceOSVersionParts[X] variables to an integer to overcome this.

$SourceNTDLL = "C:\windows\system32\ntdll.dll"

$script:ProgressPoint = 651

$SourceOSVersion = ([System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo]::GetVersionInfo($SourceNTDLL).FileVersion)

$script:ProgressPoint = 652

$SourceProductName = ([System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo]::GetVersionInfo($SourceNTDLL).ProductName)

$SourceOSVersionParts = $SourceOSVersion.split(".")

#Cast the OS version parts to an integer

$OSVersionPart1 =[INT]$SourceOSVersionParts[0]

$OSVersionPart2 =[INT]$SourceOSVersionParts[1]

if ($OSVersionPart1 -lt 6) { Write-Host -ForegroundColor Green "Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later." }

if (($OSVersionPart1 -eq 6) -and ($OSVersionPart2 -lt 2)) { CleanUp "Source OS must be version 6.2 (Windows 8/Windows Server 2012) or later." }

Do this and it evaluates correctly now so your script will run. That’s the only adaption we had to make in the script to make it run with a Windows Server 2016 guest OS.

Situation 3

My virtual machine is already a version 8 VM but still a generation 1 virtual machine. That’s not a problem at all. As long as you deal with situation 1 and 2, it will convert correctly.

Conclusion

If you’re prepping legacy virtual machines that need to be moved into a modern private cloud or on premises deployment you might need to convert them to generation 2 in order to take full advantage of the capabilities of the current Hyper-V platform (i.e. Shielded VMs). To do so you’ll be fine as long as they are running Windows Server 2012 (R2) as a guest OS on a Windows 2012 R2 host. If not, some creativity is all you need to get things going. Upgrade the guest OS if needed and fix the script if you encounter the situations as we described above. Sure, we have to herd virtual machines as cattle and avoiding holy cows VMs is important. But they do still exist and if they provide valuable services and we can’t let this hold us back from moving ahead. By proceeding like we did we prevented just that and avoided upsetting too many processes and people in the existing situation, let alone hindering them in the execution of their job. We still arrived at a situation where the virtual machines can be hosted as shielded virtual machines. Good luck!

Hyper-V Amigos Showcast Episode 14: RemoteFX & DDA

Carsten and I dove into our labs and played around with RemoteFX and Discrete Device Assignment in Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V and RDS. This resulted in the Hyper-V Amigos Showcast Episode 14: RemoteFX & DDA.

Some background on RemoteFX & DDA

I’ve discussed the new capabilities in previous blog posts such as https://blog.workinghardinit.work/?s=DDA&submit=Search  and RemoteFX and vGPU Improvements in Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V. But here the Hyper-V Amigos talk about it for your benefit and enjoyment. I for one know we had a ton of fun. Microsoft only VDI solutions are really taking off both on-premises and in Azure in cost conscious environments that still need good performance. I think we’ll see an uptake of such deployments as Microsoft has made some decisions and added some features to make this more feasible.

Hyper-V Amigos Showcast Episode 14: RemoteFX & DDA.

Click this link or the image below to watch Hyper-V Amigos Showcast Episode 14: RemoteFX & DDA

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There’s a bit of a learning curve associated with using DDA in Windows Server 2016. You’ll have to get acquainted with how to do it and put it to the test in labs and POCs. Do this before you even start thinking about designing production ready solutions. Having a good understanding on how it works and behaves is paramount to success.

Enjoy!

vNIC Speed in guests on Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V

Prior to Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V the speed a vNIC reported was an arbitrary fixed value. In Windows 2012 R2 Hyper-V that was 10Gbps.

This is a screen shot of a Windows Server 2012 R2 VM attached to a vSwitch on an LBFO of 2*1Gbps running on Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V.

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This is a screen shot of a Windows Server 2016 VM attached to a vSwitch on an LBFO of 2*10Gbp running on Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V.

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As you can see the fixed speed of 10Gbps meant that even when the switch was attached to a LBFO with 2 1Gbps NIC it would show 10Gbps etc. Obviously that would not happen unless the 2 VMs are on the same host and the limitations of the NIC don’t come into play as these are bypassed.Do note that the version of Windows in the guest doesn’t matter here as demonstrated above.

The reported speed behavior has changed in Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V. You’ll get a more realistic view of the network capabilities of the VM in some scenarios and configurations.

Here’s a screenshot of a VM attached to a vSwitch on a 1Gbps NIC.

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As you can see it reports the speed the vSwitch can achieve, 1Gbps. Now let’s look at a VM who’s vNIC is attached to a LFBO of two 10Gbps NICs.

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This NIC reports 20Gbps inside of the VM, so that’s 2 * 10Gbps.

You get the idea. the vNIC reports the aggregated maximum bandwidth of the NICs used for the  vSwitch. If we had four 10Gbps NICs in the LBFO used for the vSwitch we could see 40Gbps.

You do have to realize some things:

  • Whether a VM has access to the the entire aggregated bandwidth depends on the model of the aggregation. Just consider Switch independent teaming versus LACP teaming modes.
  • The reported bandwidth has no knowledge of any type of QoS. Not hardware based, or virtual via Hyper-V itself.
  • The bandwidth also depends on the capabilities of the other components involved (CPU, PCIe, VMQ, uplink speed, potentially disk speed etc.)
  • Traffic within a host bypasses the physical NIC and as such isn’t constraint  by the NIC capabilities it self.
  • As before the BIOS power configuration has an impact on the speed of your 10Gbps or higher NICs.

The exceptional value of a great technical community

There is a tremendous value in being an active community member. You learn form other people experiences. Both their successes and their mistakes. They learn from you. All this at the cost of the time and effort you put in. This, by itself, is of great value.

There are moments that this value reaches a peak. It becomes so huge it cannot be dismissed by even the biggest cynic of a penny pinching excuse for a manager.You see, one day bad things happen to even the nicest, most experienced and extremely competent people. That day, in the middle of the night you reach out to your community. The message is basically “HELP!”.

Guess what, the community, spread out across the globe over all time zones answers that call. You get access to support and skills form your peers when you most need it. Even if you have to pay an hourly fee that would still be a magnitude cheaper than many “premium” support schemes that, while very much needed for that vertical support, cannot match the depth and breath of the community.

For sure, you don’t have a piece of paper, and SLA, an escalation manager. That might upset some people. But what you do get are hard core skills, extra eyes and hands when you need it the most. That, ladies and gentlemen, is the exceptional value of a great technical community at work. Your backup when the system fails. Who ever has committed community experts as employees or partners or owners of a business indirectly has access to a global network of knowledge, talent, skills and experience. If you truly think people are the biggest capital you have, than these are the gems.