Jumbo Frame Settings & Slow or Failing Live Migrations over SMB Direct

The Problem

I recently had to trouble shoot a Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V cluster where SMB Direct is leveraged for live migration. It seemed to work, sometime perfectly but at times it but it was in “slow” motion. The VMs got queued for live migration, it took some time for it started and sometimes it would finish or it would fail. This did not happen between all the nodes. I diligently checked out the SMB Direct network but that was OK on all nodes. Basically the LM network was perfectly fine.

To me this indicated that the hosts potentially had issues communicating with each other to coordinate the live migration. But pings and such looked good, there was connectivity, on the surface all seemed well.  In the event log details we saw indications that this was indeed the case. Unfortunately I did not get the opportunity to take screenshots or copies of the events in this particular situation.

The nodes had a separate 2*1Gbps native team LAN access and backups. But diving deeper I noticed that they had set Jumbo Frames on some of those member NICs and not on others. So these setting differed from node to node and that was leading to the symptoms we described above.


You can use Jumbo Frames on your live migration network. Testing has shown this to be beneficial. When you’re doing SMB direct it won’t make such a big difference but it doen not hurt. When SMB Direct fails you’ll fall back to SMB with Multichannel and there it helps more! See Live Migration Can Benefit From Jumbo Frames. While SMB Direct (infiniband, RoCE & iWarp) know Jumbo frames the limited testing I have ever done there indicates only a small increase (2%) in throughput so I’m not sure it’s even worthwhile when doing RDMA.

When you can use Jumbo Frames on you host LAN NIC or team of NICs (handy is you use it to do backups as well)  you need to be consistent end to end. Meaning ALL hosts, ALL NICS & all switches/ switch ports. Being inconsistent in this on the cluster nodes  was what cause the slow to failing live migrations. You need to have good communications between the hosts themselves and AD. Just unplug the LAN from a Hyper-V cluster host to demo this => live migration from to that node and the rest of the cluster won’t work. Mismatching Jumbo Frames or potentially other network settings make this less obvious.  Another “fun” example to trouble shoot is a NIC team where the member NICs are in different VLANs.

Hyper-V and Disk Fragmentation

There are 3 type of disk fragmentation you might need to deal with in regards to Hyper-V:

  1. Fragmentation of the file system on the host LUN where the VMs reside.
  2. Fragmentation of files system on the LUNs inside of the VM.
  3. Block fragmentation of the VHDX itself. This is potentially more of an issue with dynamic disks and differencing disks.

We deal with the first type by defragmenting the LUN, which might be a CSV, in which case you can take a look here for more information on this Defragmenting your CSV Windows 2012 R2 Style with Raxco Perfect Disk 13 SP2.  For more information on fragmentation in general take a look here What’s New in Defrag for Windows Server 2012/2012R. The second type is business as usual and is similar to the first one except that it’s the file system inside a VM.

For the third type we need to create a new virtual disk using the fragmented one as the source. See Checking and Correcting Virtual Hard Disk Fragmentation. This easily done but it does cause down time unless you leverage storage live migration. So that’s my preferred method, especially as I leverage ODX when I do this, so it’s pretty fast. So always leave yourself some margin on storage to be able to perform maintenance operations. That has always been true and still is.

But how do you find out that you have this issue? PowerShell is your friend! Here’s a snippet to show you can check all VMs their vhdx files on a cluster:

$AllVMsOnAllNodesInCluster = Get-VM -ComputerName (get-ClusterNode)
ForEach ($VM in $AllVMsOnAllNodesIncluster)
    #$HardDrives  = $VM.HardDrives
    invoke-command -ComputerName $VM.computername -ScriptBlock {
        param ($VM)
        Get-VM -Name $VM.Name | Get-VMHardDiskDrive | Get-VHD | ft path, fragmentationpercentage -AutoSize
    } -arg $VM

Here’s a screenshot of some output of this snippet


As said the best solution that does not incur down time is to storage (live) migrate the virtual disks affected. We can automate this and put in some logic to do this for all virtual hard disks that are more than X% fragmented. Do take care to also check for disk space or the migration will fail.

Hope this helps some of you!

Remote Access to the KEMP R320 LoadMaster (DELL) via DRAC Adds Value

If you have a virtual Loadmaster you gain a capability you do not have with an appliance: console access. You can have lost all network connectivity to the Loadmaster but you can still gain access over the Hyper-V console connection to the virtual machine. Virtual appliances are not the only or best choice for all environments and needs. When evaluating your options you should consider going for a bare metal solution like the DELL R320.


These are basically DELL servers and as such have a Dell Remote Access Card (DRAC) that allows for remote access independently of the production network. Great for when you need to resolve an issue where you cannot connect to the unit anymore and you’re not near the Loadmaster. It also allows for remote shutdown and start capabilities, mounting images for updates, … all the good stuff. Basically it offers all the benefits of a DELL Server with a DRAC has to offer.


That means I have an independent way into my load balancer to deal wit problems when I can no longer connect to it via the network interface or even when it is shut down. As we normally telecommute as much as possible, either from the offices, on the road or home this is a great feature to have. It sure beats driving to your data center at zero dark thirty if that is even a feasible option. image

I know that normally you put in two units for high availability but that will not cover all scenarios and if you have a data center filled with DELL PowerEdge servers that have DRAC and you cannot restore services because you cannot get to your load balancers that’s a bummer. It’s for that same reason we have IP managed PDU, OOB capabilities on the switches. The idea is to have options and be able to restore services remotely as much as possible. This is faster, cheaper and easier than going over there, so reducing that occurrence as much as possible is good. Knowledge today flies across the planet a lot faster than human being can.

Updating Hyper-V Integration Services: An error has occurred: One of the update processes returned error code 1603

So you migrate over 200 VMs from a previous version of Hyper-V to Windows Server 2012 R2 fully patched and life looks great, full of possibilities etc. However one thing get’s back to your e-mail inbox consistently: a couple of Windows Server 2003 R2 SP2 (x64) and Windows XP SP3 (x86) virtual machines. The VEEAM backups consistently fail. Digging into that the cause is pretty obvious … it tells you where to problem lies.


Ah they forgot the upgrade the IS components you might conclude. Let’s see if we try an upgrade. Yes they are offered and you run them … looks to be going well too. But then you’re greeted by "An error has occurred: One of the update processes returned error code 1603”.

Darn! Now you can go and do all kinds of stuff to find out what part of the integrations services are messed up as most day to day operations work fine (registry, explore, versions, security settings …) or be smart a leverage the power of PowerShell. It’s easy to find out what is not right via a simple commandlet  Get-VMIntegrationService


We’ll that’s obvious. So how to fix this. I uninstalled the IS components, rebooted the VM, reinstalled the IS components  … which requires another reboot. While the VM is rebooting you can take a peak at the integration services status with Get-VMIntegrationService


That’s it, all is well again and backups run just fine. Lessons learned here are that SCOM was completely happy with the bad situation … that isn’t good Smile.

So there’s the solution for you but it’s kind of “omen” like that it happened to three Windows 2003 virtual machines (both x64 and x86). You really need to get off these obsolete operating systems. Staying will never improve things but I guarantee you they will get worse.

See you at a next blog Winking smile